This dataset provides MC3-GGUM ideology estimates for members of Congress (currently estimates for the 107th to the 116th Congresses are available). For details of the GGUM model and the MC3 estimation algorithm, please see the related publication page. When using this dataset, please cite both the dataset and the related publication as follows (the “Cite” button above will generate BibTeX entries for you):
- Duck-Mayr, JBrandon and Jacob Montgomery. 2022. MC3-GGUM Estimates of Congressional Ideology. http://jbduckmayr.com/data-software/ggum-estimates/
- Duck-Mayr, JBrandon and Jacob Montgomery. 2023. “Ends Against the Middle: Measuring Latent Traits When Opposites Respond the Same Way for Antithetical Reasons”. Political Analysis FirstView, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1017/pan.2022.33.
You can download the dataset and its codebook here: